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Valentine.gr  

June 2020

Did you know that the nuts of Cola nitida used in the manufacture of the popular soft drink called cola as a main ingredient?

Kola nut (Cola nitida). Flowera and fruits.

Kola nut - Cola nitida

Cola nitida is a species of plant belonging to the family Malvaceae. It is a tree native to the rainforests of tropical West Africa, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Nigeria, Common names include kola nut, cola, kola and bitter kola. The seeds contain caffeine and are chewed as a stimulant and used in the manufacture of soft drinks. The nuts and other parts of the tree have many uses of a ceremonial nature and in traditional medicine. The timber has multiple uses. 

Cola nitida is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 12 to 20 metres (39 to 66 ft). The trunk is up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11.1 in) in diameter and older trees develop buttresses. The bark is thick and fibrous, with deep longitudinal fissures, but small branches are smooth. It is grey or brownish-grey, with pinkish-red wood becoming visible when the bark is damaged. 

The leaves have stalks and are alternate, oblong, glabrous, leathery dark green and tough, with untoothed wavy margins and up to 33 cm.

The flowers have parts in fives. They grow in panicles from the leaf axils and have no petals. Male flowers have a deeply lobed, cup-shaped calyx about 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter with two whorls of stamens. Female flowers are larger at 5 cm (2.0 in) diameter, with five carpels. They are white with red marks inside.

The calyx is yellow with red nectar guides, and are followed by fleshy fruits up to 13 cm (5.1 in) long and 7 cm (2.8 in) wide. The fruits are green, shiny, made up of 5 cells which curve back, and contain about 10 seeds per fruit. When ripe, the pods split open to reveal the seeds which may be mottled white, reddish-grey or brown. The seeds are bitter when fresh but become more aromatic as they age.

Cola nitida is native to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. It is a lowland tree but can be found up to altitudes of about 300 metres (980 ft) in areas with deep, rich soils and evenly distributed rainfall. It has been cultivated in other parts of tropical Africa as well as India, Jamaica, Brazil, and Hawaii.

It can grow where there is around 1,200 millimetres (47 in) of rain but does better where the annual rainfall exceeds 1,700 millimetres (67 in), spread across eight months or more. Its temperature range is 23 to 28 °C (73 to 82 °F) and it grows on both light and heavy soils as long as they are deep.

The nuts contain caffeine, theobromine and tannin. Along with the closely related Cola acuminata, which is also native to West Africa, the trees are cultivated commercially in tropical regions of the world and the nuts used in the manufacture of the popular soft drink called cola. The cola drink consists of flavouring extracts of kola nut, spice oils, and other aromatics and sometimes of coca (Erythroxylum coca) leaves; carmel colouring; sugar and other sweeteners, singly or in combination; phosphoric acid or citric acid; carbon dioxide for effervescence; and water (86 to 92 percent by volume). In diet cola drinks, artificial flavourings and sweeteners may predominate, and the water content may near 100 percent.

In Africa the nut has traditionally been used as a stimulant when chewed. It is reported to lessen fatigue, prevent hunger pangs, increase mental activity and reduce the need for sleep. When chewed, it also has the effect of modifying the taste sensation so that any food or drink consumed immediately afterwards seems sweet. Parts of the plant are also used in rituals such as weddings, child naming ceremonies, induction of village chiefs, funerals and sacrificial ceremonies. The leaves, twigs, bark, flowers and nuts are also used in traditional medicine. Cola nitida is closely related to Theobroma cacao, the cocoa tree, and the nuts have been used as a main ingredient for chocolate with a high melting point.

In medicine the refined extract is used as a cardiac and central-nervous-system stimulant. The seeds are an astringent, bitter-sweet, anti-depressant herb that has a stimulant effect, especially on the heart[ 238 ]. The powdered seeds are taken internally in tonics, in the treatment of exhaustion, low energy and poor appetite. They are also used in treating diarrhoea.

The nut is used in dyeing and water purification. Furthermore, the plant is used as shade trees in cocoa plantations. The wood is susceptible to borers but can be used. The timber has a use in building work, boat construction, furniture and joinery, musical instruments, utensils and carving. It is also useful as firewood. The pods have been used to make fertiliser and soap, and they can be used as a substitute for up to 60% of the maize in poultry feed.
 


Source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cola_nitida
https://www.britannica.com/plant/Cola-nitida
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cola+nitida

 

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Blue honeysuckle - Haskap - Lonicera caerulea
Balata - Manilkara bidentata
Calabash nutmeg - Monodora myristica
Allanblackia
Kola nut - Cola nitida
Rainbow eucalyptus - Eucalyptus deglupta
Elephant apple - Dillenia indica
Australian Christmas tree - Nuytsia floribunda
Honeywort- Cerinthe major
Aconite - Monkshood - Wolfsbane - Aconitum napellus
Crown of Thorns - Euphorbia milii
Abyssinian banana - Ensete ventricosum
Goldenrain Tree - Koelreuteria paniculata
Naranjilla - Lulo - Solanum quitoense
Brazil nut tree - Bertholletia excelsa
Sea grape - Coccoloba uvifera
Bignay - Antidesma bunius
Cashew - Anacardium occidentale
Giant Himalayan Lily - Cardiocrinum giganteum
African Hemp - Sparrmannia africana
Lychee - Litchi chinensis
Prickly Heath - Gaultheria mucronata
Hoodia - Bushman's hat - Hoodia gordonii
Cannibals Tomato - Solanum viride
Ashoka - Saraca asoca
Ackee - Blighia sapida
African plum - Safou - Dacryodes edulis
Solandra - Solandra maxima
Stapelia - Stapelia gigantea
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Swiss Cheese Plant - Monstera deliciosa
Chocolate flower - Berlandiera lyrata
Sandersonia - Sandersonia aurantiaca
Northern Japanese Magnolia - Magnolia kobus
Champak - Magnolia champaca
Hooker’s lips - Psychotria elata
Suicide Tree - Cerbera odollam
Konjac - Amorphophallus konjac
Madagascar ocotillo - Alluaudia procera
Water Banana - Typhonodorum lindleyanum
Salak - Salacca zalacca
Natal Plum - Carissa macrocarpa
Ashanti blood - Mussaenda erythrophylla
Duranta - Duranta erecta
Maqui - Aristotelia chilensis
Manuka - New Zealand Tea Tree - Leptospermum scoparium
Suriname cherry - Eugenia uniflora
Australian Finger Lime - Citrus australasica
Sacred Flower of the Incas - Cantua buxifolia
Job's tears - Coix Lacryma-jobi
Velvet Bean - Mucuna pruriens
Java Apple - Syzygium samarangense
Screwpine - Pandanus utilis
Marimo - Aegagropila linnaei
Achocha/Caigua - Inca cucumber - Cyclanthera pedata
Rubber Tree - Hevea brasiliensis
Sugar cane - Saccharum officinarum
Sacha inchi - Plukenetia volubilis
Coffea - Coffee Tree - Coffea arabica
Liquorice - Licorice - Glycyrrhiza glabra
Mullein -Verbascum thapsus
Iceplant - Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
Chayote - Sechium edule
Roselle - Hibiscus sabdariffa
Black Goji - Lycium ruthenicum Murray
Rose Cactus - Pereskia grandifolia
Durian - Durio zibethinus
Jackfruit tree - Artocarpus heterophyllus
Cassabanana - Sicana odorifera
Chilean myrtle - Arrayan - Luma apiculata
Kurrajong - Brachychiton populneus
Rice-paper Plant -Tetrapanax papyrifer
Shell Ginger - Alpinia zerumbet
Harlequin Glorybower - Clerodendrum trichotomum
Coco de Mer - Lodoicea maldivica
Silver Tree - Leucadendron argenteum
Buffaloberry - Shepherdia argentea
Himalayan Honeysuckle - Leycesteria formosa
Raisin Tree - Hovenia dulcis
Borojo - Alibertia patinoi - Borojoa patinoi
Butterfly Pea - Clitoria ternatea
Honey Flower - Melianthus major
Ombu - Phytolacca dioica
Lion's Ear - Wild Dagga - Leonotis leonurus
Moringa - Miracle Tree - Moringa oleifera
Sea Daffodil - Pancratium maritimum
Spear Lily - Gymea - Doryanthes
Camphor tree - Cinnamomum camphora
Waterwheel - Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Flowering rush - Butomus umbellatus
Four o'clock - Marvel of Peru - Mirabilis jalapa
Dead Man’s Fingers - Decaisnea
Bitter Melon - Momordica charantia
Shoapnuts Tree - Shoapberry - Sapindus
Acerola - Malpighia
Monkey Ladder - Sea Heart - Entada gigas
Cherimoya - Annona cherimola
Caper - Capparis spinosa
Lithops - Living Stones
Chaste Tree - Vitex agnus-castus
Chilean Lantern Tree - Crinodendron hookerianum
Parrot's Beak - Lotus berthelotii
Water Hyacinth - Eichhornia crassipes
Guaiac Tree - Guaiacum officinale - Lignum-vitae
Mickey Mouse bush - Ochna serrulata
Cow's Udder - Solanum mammosum
Miracle fruit - Synsepalum dulcificum
Akebia - Akebia quinata
Chilean Firebush - Embothrium coccineum
Caesalpinia - Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Welwitschia - Welwitschia mirabilis
Saguaro - Carnegiea gigantea
Schisandra - Schisandra chinensis
Monarda - Bee balm - Bergamot
Tamarind - Tamarindus indica
Neomarica - Walking Iris
Red hot poker - Kniphofia - Tritoma
Sikkim rhubarb - Rheum nobile
Reseda - Mignonette
Paulownia - Paulownia tomentosa
Belamcanda chinensis - Leopard lily
Blue Poppy - Meconopsis
Cannonball Tree - Couroupita guianensis
Tamarillo - Cyphomandra betacea
Goji - Wolfberry - Lycium barbarum
Vanilla - Vanilla Planifolia
Stevia - Stevia rebaudiana
Pachypodium
Physalis
Ceropegia
Sturt pea - Swainsona formosa
Clematis
Grevillea
Jade vine - Strongylodon macrobotrys
Sansevieria - Snake Plant
Trochetia
Yareta - Azorella compacta
African tulip tree - Spathodea campanulata
Angel's Trumpets - Brugmansia
Achiote - Annato - Bixa orellana
Sausage Tree - Kigelia pinnata
Castor Oil Plant - Ricinus communis
Firewheel Tree - Stenocarpus sinuatus
Bat Flower - Tacca
Snake gourd - Trichosanthes cucumerina
Sedum
Hydnora - Hydnora africana
Pickerel Weed - Pontederia
Argan - Argania spinosa
Astilbe - False Goats Beard
Feijoa - Pineapple Guava - Acca sellowiana
Aquilegia - Columbine
Cassiope
Sweet Box - Sarcococca
Christmas Cactus - Schlumbergera
Foxtail Lily - Eremurus
Rue - Ruta graveolens
Pittosporum
Ylang-Ylang - Cananga odorata
Rose of Jericho - Anastatica hierochuntica
Gunnera
Waterlily - Nymphaea
Calico Flower - Aristolochia
Daylily - Hemerocallis
Contorted hazel - Corylus avellana Contorta
Torch Ginger - Etlingera elatior
Mistletoe - Viscum album
Devil´s claw - Harpagophytum procumbens
Teasel - Dipsacus
Pampas grass - Gynerium argenteum - Cortaderia Selloanna
Purple coneflower - Echinacea purpurea
Coral Tree - Erythrina crista-galli
Portulaca
Lobelia
Field Poppy - Papaver Rhoeas
Narcissus - Daffodil
Mimosa pudica - Sensitive Plant
Boxwood - Buxus sempervirens
Firethorn - Pyracantha
Star of Bethlehem - Ornithogalum
Cosmos
Muscari - Grape Hyacinth
Papyrus - Cyperus papyrus
Zinnia
Honeysuckle - Lonicera
Passiflora - Passion Flower
Calendula - Marigold
Lupine - Lupinus
Canna - Indian Shot
Witch Hazel - Hamamelis
Oak - Quercus
Brunsvigia - Candelabra Flower
Tree peony - Paeonia suffruticosa
Olive - Olea europaea
Cornflower - Centaurea cyanus
Desert rose - Adenium obesum
Oleander - Nerium Oleander
Abutilon
Sweet Pea - Lathyrus odoratus
Chaenomeles - Flowering Quince
Forsythia
Amaryllis - Hippeastrum
Butchers broom - Ruscus aculeatus
Bay Laurel - Laurus nobilis
Gloriosa
Bamboo
Gladiolus
Artichoke - Cynara scolymus
Clivia - Clivia Miniata
Dipladenia - Dipladenia sanderii
Date palm - Phoenix dactylifera
Peach - Prunus persica
Almond - Prunus amygdalus
Willow - Salix
Pomegranate - Punica granatum
Protea cynaroides
Colchicum autumnale
Bird of Paradise - Strelitzia reginae
Cardon - Pachycereus pringlei
Wolffia arrhiza
Puya raimondii
Fuchsia
Asphodelus - Asphodel
Primula - Primerose
Dicentra spectabilis - Bleeding Heart
Edelweiss - Leontopodium alpinum
Helleborus Niger - Christmas Rose
Zantedeschia - Calla Lily
Fritillaria imperialis - Crown imperial
Aster
Heliconia
Common Sunflower - Helianthus annuus
Bee Orchid - Orphys apifera
Convalaria majalis - Lily of the Valley - Muguet
Syringa Vurgaris - Lilac
Viola
Impantiens
Snowdrop - Galanthus
Poinsettia - Euphorbia pulcherrima
Dionaea muscipula
Banksia
Sea anemone
Amorrhophallus titanum
Rafflesia arnoldi

 

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