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Valentine.gr  

July 2020

Did you know that Allanblackia oil is a vegetable oil that comes from the seeds of trees of the genus Allanblackia?

Allanblackia (Allanblackia spp.). Flowera and fruits.

Allanblackia

Allanblackia is a genus of flowering evergreen tree in the family Clusiaceae which grows in the tropical rainbelt of Africa. Mature trees bear large brown fruits which contain seeds that yield Allanblackia oil.

Allanblackia floribunda, known in English as 'tallow tree', is a species of flowering plant in the family Clusiaceae that has been long used in traditional African medicine to treat hypertension. It is a common understory tree in rain-forests in western central Africa - from Sierra Leone to W Cameroons, and on into the DR Congo and Uganda. The medium-sized tree (up to 30 meters tall) is evergreen and dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants). The wood is said to be resistant to termites but is not particularly durable. It is fairly easy to work and finishes well but it is of little commercial importance though it has appeared on the market in Liberia as ‘lacewood’.

The wood is used in Nigeria in hut-building for making walls, doors and window-frames, and in Liberia for planks. In Ghana small trees are cut for poles and find use as mine pit-props and bridge-piles. The twigs are used in Ghana as candlesticks, and the smaller ones as chew-sticks and tooth-picks in Ghana and Gabon. The inner bark contains a sticky yellow resin. The bark has anodynal properties. In the Region it is pounded and rubbed on the body to relieve painful conditions. In Gabon a decoction is taken for dysentery and as a mouthwash for toothache and in Congo (Brazzaville) for stomach-pains. In Congo a decoction of the bark or the leaves is taken for cough, asthma, bronchitis and other bronchial affections while the lees from this preparation are rubbed over areas of pain after scarification.

The tree's fruit are not really edible but its seeds are the source of Allanblackia Oil [1] long used by local populations. Nigeria is developing infrastructure for international-scale commercial use. It is estimated Nigeria produced about 50 tons of allanblackia oil in 2006. Domesticating Allanblackia floribunda is being attempted. Presently the seed is collected only from wild stands or from trees retained on farm land (When clearing land for cultivation trees are left and managed, especially for shading cocoa).

Mkani or Msambo (Allanblackia stuhlmannii) is a medium-sized to fairly large evergreen, flowering tree that can only be found in Tanzania. It grows up to 45m tall, and it has a straight bole that can be up to 65 cm in diameter and can be clear of branches for up to 9 m. First flowering usually occurs when the tree is about 12 years old. Fruits are long or cone shaped berry and takes more than a year to develop and mature. The tree is known for its seed oil and timber.

An edible non-drying fat, called Mkani fat, is obtained from the seed. It is locally important, where it is used in cooking and has been used as a substitute for butter and cocoa butter. Air-dried seeds contain about 50% fat. The fatty acid composition of the fat is remarkable as it consists mainly of stearic acid (45 - 58%) and oleic acid (40 - 51%). Only traces of other fatty acids are present. Its composition and resulting high melting point (35c) makes the fat a valuable raw material that can be used without transformation to improve the consistency of margarines, cocoa butter substitutes and similar products. Seeds are extracted from the fruits by crushing them between the hands and rubbing them clean. Traditionally, the seeds are dried and crushed; the resulting mass is mixed with water and boiled until the fat separates and floats to the surface from where it is scooped off. The fruit's slimy jelly-like pulp can be used in jam making.

In traditional medicine, the leaves are chewed to treat cough, while the leaves, bark and roots are used to treat impotence[ 299 , 398 ]. A seed extract is rubbed in to treat rheumatism[ 299 ]. The fat is applied as a liniment on aching joints, wounds and rashes and small quantities are taken orally to treat rheumatism. The fat, mixed with the pounded seeds of Psorospermum febrifugum, is rubbed on deep cracks in the soles of the feet. Guttiferone F, a prenylated benzophenone, has been isolated from the wood of the roots. The compound is related to a group of compounds that has been investigated for its anti-HIV properties.

The bark is a source of a red dye. The bark yields a yellow dye. The fat from the seed is used to make candles. The heartwood is dark brown to purplish, usually present only as a small core - for example there would be around 10cm of heartwood in a bole of 65cm; the sapwood is pale grey-brown. Texture is medium; the grain straight. The wood air dries slowly, with a moderate tendency to cup, but with little or no splitting. It is difficult to saw when green, but once dry it saws easily and machines well. It holds nails well. The sapwood is not durable, but is permeable to preservatives; the heartwood is very resistant. The wood is used for construction, cheap joinery, boxes, crates, beehives and water containers. The wood is used for fuel.

Allanblackia gabonensis is native to Cameroon and Gabon in West Africa and belongs to the family of the Clusiaceae. Allanblackia gabonensis is affected by tropical deforestation and thus habitat loss. Since 2011 it is rated as vulnerable species on the red list and become very rare. Allanblackia gabonensis is a tree that reaches a height of about 30 m. The bark is reddish brown. From the bark xanthones were isolated. It was shown that those xanthones have a antimicrobial effect and may help against leishmaniosis more specifically against the parasites that are responsible for that illness. In Gabon the natives cook the bark and use the brew as mouthwash to treat toothache. The wood is used by the natives to built huts.

But nevertheless the wood of Allanblackia gabonensis has not a great importance. The branches of Allanblackia gabonensis hang down. The plant bears white latex that gets yellowish when drying. The leaves are 25 cm long and 7 cm wide. They are glossy and have a special venation. The leaf veins go in a right angle parallel from the midrib to the leaf edge.

The flowers of Alanblackia gabonensis are reddish to pink. They are actinomorphic and are 6 cm in diameter. Allanblackia gabonensis is dioecious meaning that female and male flowers are sitting on different individuals. The male flowers are identifiable based on the various stamens in the middle that occur in clusters. The female flower has a thick ovary. The flowers have a pleasant odor. Allanblackia gabonensis flowers for half a year.

The fruit is impressive. It gets 25 cm long and has 15 cm in diameter The stone fruit is popular with monkeys. They eat the fruit and distribute the seeds in that way. From the seeds an oil can be gained. It is used by the natives for cooking. They call the oil "beurre de bouandjo". It is also known as "allanblackia fat". The international foodstuffs industry took notice of Allanblackia fat and uses it as a component of margarine. The fruit is also edible for humans.


Source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allanblackia_floribunda
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allanblackia+stuhlmannii
https://www.asklepios-seeds.de/gb/allanblackia-gabonensis-seeds.html

 

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Calabash nutmeg - Monodora myristica
Allanblackia
Kola nut - Cola nitida
Rainbow eucalyptus - Eucalyptus deglupta
Elephant apple - Dillenia indica
Australian Christmas tree - Nuytsia floribunda
Honeywort- Cerinthe major
Aconite - Monkshood - Wolfsbane - Aconitum napellus
Crown of Thorns - Euphorbia milii
Abyssinian banana - Ensete ventricosum
Goldenrain Tree - Koelreuteria paniculata
Naranjilla - Lulo - Solanum quitoense
Brazil nut tree - Bertholletia excelsa
Sea grape - Coccoloba uvifera
Bignay - Antidesma bunius
Cashew - Anacardium occidentale
Giant Himalayan Lily - Cardiocrinum giganteum
African Hemp - Sparrmannia africana
Lychee - Litchi chinensis
Prickly Heath - Gaultheria mucronata
Hoodia - Bushman's hat - Hoodia gordonii
Cannibals Tomato - Solanum viride
Ashoka - Saraca asoca
Ackee - Blighia sapida
African plum - Safou - Dacryodes edulis
Solandra - Solandra maxima
Stapelia - Stapelia gigantea
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Swiss Cheese Plant - Monstera deliciosa
Chocolate flower - Berlandiera lyrata
Sandersonia - Sandersonia aurantiaca
Northern Japanese Magnolia - Magnolia kobus
Champak - Magnolia champaca
Hooker’s lips - Psychotria elata
Suicide Tree - Cerbera odollam
Konjac - Amorphophallus konjac
Madagascar ocotillo - Alluaudia procera
Water Banana - Typhonodorum lindleyanum
Salak - Salacca zalacca
Natal Plum - Carissa macrocarpa
Ashanti blood - Mussaenda erythrophylla
Duranta - Duranta erecta
Maqui - Aristotelia chilensis
Manuka - New Zealand Tea Tree - Leptospermum scoparium
Suriname cherry - Eugenia uniflora
Australian Finger Lime - Citrus australasica
Sacred Flower of the Incas - Cantua buxifolia
Job's tears - Coix Lacryma-jobi
Velvet Bean - Mucuna pruriens
Java Apple - Syzygium samarangense
Screwpine - Pandanus utilis
Marimo - Aegagropila linnaei
Achocha/Caigua - Inca cucumber - Cyclanthera pedata
Rubber Tree - Hevea brasiliensis
Sugar cane - Saccharum officinarum
Sacha inchi - Plukenetia volubilis
Coffea - Coffee Tree - Coffea arabica
Liquorice - Licorice - Glycyrrhiza glabra
Mullein -Verbascum thapsus
Iceplant - Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
Chayote - Sechium edule
Roselle - Hibiscus sabdariffa
Black Goji - Lycium ruthenicum Murray
Rose Cactus - Pereskia grandifolia
Durian - Durio zibethinus
Jackfruit tree - Artocarpus heterophyllus
Cassabanana - Sicana odorifera
Chilean myrtle - Arrayan - Luma apiculata
Kurrajong - Brachychiton populneus
Rice-paper Plant -Tetrapanax papyrifer
Shell Ginger - Alpinia zerumbet
Harlequin Glorybower - Clerodendrum trichotomum
Coco de Mer - Lodoicea maldivica
Silver Tree - Leucadendron argenteum
Buffaloberry - Shepherdia argentea
Himalayan Honeysuckle - Leycesteria formosa
Raisin Tree - Hovenia dulcis
Borojo - Alibertia patinoi - Borojoa patinoi
Butterfly Pea - Clitoria ternatea
Honey Flower - Melianthus major
Ombu - Phytolacca dioica
Lion's Ear - Wild Dagga - Leonotis leonurus
Moringa - Miracle Tree - Moringa oleifera
Sea Daffodil - Pancratium maritimum
Spear Lily - Gymea - Doryanthes
Camphor tree - Cinnamomum camphora
Waterwheel - Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Flowering rush - Butomus umbellatus
Four o'clock - Marvel of Peru - Mirabilis jalapa
Dead Man’s Fingers - Decaisnea
Bitter Melon - Momordica charantia
Shoapnuts Tree - Shoapberry - Sapindus
Acerola - Malpighia
Monkey Ladder - Sea Heart - Entada gigas
Cherimoya - Annona cherimola
Caper - Capparis spinosa
Lithops - Living Stones
Chaste Tree - Vitex agnus-castus
Chilean Lantern Tree - Crinodendron hookerianum
Parrot's Beak - Lotus berthelotii
Water Hyacinth - Eichhornia crassipes
Guaiac Tree - Guaiacum officinale - Lignum-vitae
Mickey Mouse bush - Ochna serrulata
Cow's Udder - Solanum mammosum
Miracle fruit - Synsepalum dulcificum
Akebia - Akebia quinata
Chilean Firebush - Embothrium coccineum
Caesalpinia - Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Welwitschia - Welwitschia mirabilis
Saguaro - Carnegiea gigantea
Schisandra - Schisandra chinensis
Monarda - Bee balm - Bergamot
Tamarind - Tamarindus indica
Neomarica - Walking Iris
Red hot poker - Kniphofia - Tritoma
Sikkim rhubarb - Rheum nobile
Reseda - Mignonette
Paulownia - Paulownia tomentosa
Belamcanda chinensis - Leopard lily
Blue Poppy - Meconopsis
Cannonball Tree - Couroupita guianensis
Tamarillo - Cyphomandra betacea
Goji - Wolfberry - Lycium barbarum
Vanilla - Vanilla Planifolia
Stevia - Stevia rebaudiana
Pachypodium
Physalis
Ceropegia
Sturt pea - Swainsona formosa
Clematis
Grevillea
Jade vine - Strongylodon macrobotrys
Sansevieria - Snake Plant
Trochetia
Yareta - Azorella compacta
African tulip tree - Spathodea campanulata
Angel's Trumpets - Brugmansia
Achiote - Annato - Bixa orellana
Sausage Tree - Kigelia pinnata
Castor Oil Plant - Ricinus communis
Firewheel Tree - Stenocarpus sinuatus
Bat Flower - Tacca
Snake gourd - Trichosanthes cucumerina
Sedum
Hydnora - Hydnora africana
Pickerel Weed - Pontederia
Argan - Argania spinosa
Astilbe - False Goats Beard
Feijoa - Pineapple Guava - Acca sellowiana
Aquilegia - Columbine
Cassiope
Sweet Box - Sarcococca
Christmas Cactus - Schlumbergera
Foxtail Lily - Eremurus
Rue - Ruta graveolens
Pittosporum
Ylang-Ylang - Cananga odorata
Rose of Jericho - Anastatica hierochuntica
Gunnera
Waterlily - Nymphaea
Calico Flower - Aristolochia
Daylily - Hemerocallis
Contorted hazel - Corylus avellana Contorta
Torch Ginger - Etlingera elatior
Mistletoe - Viscum album
Devil´s claw - Harpagophytum procumbens
Teasel - Dipsacus
Pampas grass - Gynerium argenteum - Cortaderia Selloanna
Purple coneflower - Echinacea purpurea
Coral Tree - Erythrina crista-galli
Portulaca
Lobelia
Field Poppy - Papaver Rhoeas
Narcissus - Daffodil
Mimosa pudica - Sensitive Plant
Boxwood - Buxus sempervirens
Firethorn - Pyracantha
Star of Bethlehem - Ornithogalum
Cosmos
Muscari - Grape Hyacinth
Papyrus - Cyperus papyrus
Zinnia
Honeysuckle - Lonicera
Passiflora - Passion Flower
Calendula - Marigold
Lupine - Lupinus
Canna - Indian Shot
Witch Hazel - Hamamelis
Oak - Quercus
Brunsvigia - Candelabra Flower
Tree peony - Paeonia suffruticosa
Olive - Olea europaea
Cornflower - Centaurea cyanus
Desert rose - Adenium obesum
Oleander - Nerium Oleander
Abutilon
Sweet Pea - Lathyrus odoratus
Chaenomeles - Flowering Quince
Forsythia
Amaryllis - Hippeastrum
Butchers broom - Ruscus aculeatus
Bay Laurel - Laurus nobilis
Gloriosa
Bamboo
Gladiolus
Artichoke - Cynara scolymus
Clivia - Clivia Miniata
Dipladenia - Dipladenia sanderii
Date palm - Phoenix dactylifera
Peach - Prunus persica
Almond - Prunus amygdalus
Willow - Salix
Pomegranate - Punica granatum
Protea cynaroides
Colchicum autumnale
Bird of Paradise - Strelitzia reginae
Cardon - Pachycereus pringlei
Wolffia arrhiza
Puya raimondii
Fuchsia
Asphodelus - Asphodel
Primula - Primerose
Dicentra spectabilis - Bleeding Heart
Edelweiss - Leontopodium alpinum
Helleborus Niger - Christmas Rose
Zantedeschia - Calla Lily
Fritillaria imperialis - Crown imperial
Aster
Heliconia
Common Sunflower - Helianthus annuus
Bee Orchid - Orphys apifera
Convalaria majalis - Lily of the Valley - Muguet
Syringa Vurgaris - Lilac
Viola
Impantiens
Snowdrop - Galanthus
Poinsettia - Euphorbia pulcherrima
Dionaea muscipula
Banksia
Sea anemone
Amorrhophallus titanum
Rafflesia arnoldi

 

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